- Clear and concise directions, rules and expectations
- Break down tasks into smaller chunks
- Gain eye contact with student prior to giving directions
- Repetition and/or restating directions
- Preferential seating
- Limiting distractions
- Use of visuals (schedules, rules, tasks)
- Frequent check-ins
- Modeling of language and classroom expectations
- Preview, clarify, and repeat new information
- Allow student extra time to process information and extra time to formulate a response
- Have student repeat directions and instructions to make sure they understand what is being asked of them
- Connect new material to prior knowledge
- Use of graphic organizers
- Multi-modal approach to learning
- Positive reinforcement
- Opportunities for movement breaks
Most of this information came from Understanding and Using Reading Assessment K-12 (2nd Edition) by Peter Afflerbach, 2012.
Teachers, you need to STRIVE to send this home with each child in your class!
_____ continues to develop as an enthusiastic reader. He chooses to read when given choices for independent work in the classroom. He identifies himself as a reader. He understands that he is in control of reading and his effort and persistence influence the outcomes of his work. Compared with the beginning of this school year, _____ is a motivated reader. I attribute this to the fact that he now understands the value of reading, how it helps him reach learning goals, how it can enrich his life, and how it helps him prepare for the future. ______’s hard work at learning the needed reading strategies is clearly paying off. At the beginning of the school year, he did not believe that he was in control of his reading and had a poor attitude toward reading. Through a series of lessons, hard work, and the development of a positive attitude and motivation, ______ has learned that understanding text is something that is under his control. He demonstrates the sense of agency that is so important to successful readers. The ability to begin, work through, and complete reading on his own contributes valuable lessons about his hard work and his ability to succeed and act on the world in a positive matter. In summary, ______ now sees himself as a reader, one who experiences success and values the outcome of his reading. (Afflerbach, p. 172)
Teachers MUST assess “the other” important aspects of reading, the important factors that are contributors to and outcomes of reading success. These factors include (Afflerbach, p. 171):
- Readers’ motivation
- Readers’ engagement
- Agency (sense of control)
- Attributions that readers make for their performances in reading
Examine these factors from a formative perspective ~ how they develop and either support or impede reading development, and from a summative perspective ~ as they represent a range of positive or negative outcomes of reading instruction (Afflerbach, p. 171).
Building a learning community is a key part of a successful learning experience. Teachers should spend a lot of time on in it at the beginning of the year. Try these Reading Inventories!
Motivation to Read Profile ~ Google it!
Read these articles/view these PowerPoints and presentations!
View: Formative Assessments and the Common Core: Text Complexity to Task Complexity by Afflerbach. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-cpFLLVfd6A
http://readingandwritingproject.com/resources/assessments/readingassessments.html Click on Resources, and then Assessments.
“When we read, we engage in a transactive experience where our personal knowledge, experiences, emotions interact with the text. No reading experience is neutral as the reader is an active part of the meaning-making process. This experience is even deepened when we process what we have read with others.” ~ Quote from the UNE Assessment course
Literacy assessment defines literacy ~
o What gets assessed is what gets taught
o Literacy assessment effects how we organize literacy instruction
o The validity of an assessment lies in its consequences
o The teacher is the primary agent of assessment
o Teachers need both formative and summative assessments
TYPES OF ASSESSMENT
Formative Assessment: The goal of formative assessment is to monitor student learning to provide ongoing feedback that can be used to improve teaching and to improve student learning. Formative assessments help students identify their strengths and weaknesses and target areas that need work. They help teachers identify problem areas to remediate immediately.
Summative Assessment: The goal of summative assessment is to evaluate student work at the end of a unit by comparing it to some standard or benchmark. These are high-stakes or have high point value.
Many people feel authentic assessments ARE performance assessments using real world or authentic tasks or contexts. These terms are used synonymously (Mueller).
Performance Assessment: A performance assessment in which students demonstrate that they have mastered specific skills by performing or producing something.
Authentic Assessment: Authentic assessments have 2 characteristics. First, they may be embedded in classroom routines of instruction and learning and conducted during regular activities. They are clearly related to the learning and achievement that are the goals, and the inferences that we make from this information can be connected to the student learning. Second, they may be focused on real-world reading. These tasks focus on the world outside of school (Afflerbach, p. 95).
The “Other” Assessment: Assessing important factors such as motivation, engagement, self-concepts, agency, interest, and attitudes (Afflerbach, p. 171).
Close Reading Assignment ~ “One of the most talked about shifts in the Common Core State Standards (CCSS) is the need to engage students in ‘close reading’ of complex texts. Essentially close reading means reading to uncover layers of meaning that lead to deep comprehension. Often in order to do this you need to read a text several times in order to analyze it and gain a deeper understanding of the text” (quote from the UNE course).
A great description of this process found on the following scholastic site http://www.scholastic.com/teachers/top-teaching/2013/04/investigating-nonfiction-part-2-digging-deeper-close-reading. It states that close reading is like this:
“The first time you dig your shovel in (read), you just scrape the surface off the ground. The second time you dig in (read the text again), you get a little more dirt (meaning). And every time you dig in (read) after that, your hole gets bigger and bigger until it’s just right and you get the full meaning” (quote from the UNE Assessment course).
Create a table that looks like this:
Key Ideas and Details
Craft and Structure
Integration of Knowledge and Ideas